Known as an alloy of iron and carbon, steel is already one of the world’s most valuable materials. It’s used to build anything from washing machines and dryers to roads, ships, vehicles, homes, and more. Statistics demonstrate that more than 1.7 million tonnes of steel get extracted annually. Though there are many types of steel production methods, the two most common are primary and secondary.

What is Primary Steelmaking?

Primary steel processing requires a blower to drive oxygen into molten iron, thus decreasing its carbon content and eventually turning it into steel. Also recognised as basic oxygen steelmaking, Swiss engineer Robert Durrer created it in the 1950s. With the support of his colleagues, Durrer was the inventor of primary steel production in 1948. He discovered that by driving oxygen into molten iron, the carbon content of the iron had decreased. As a result, Durrer quickly produced steel from raw pig iron using the primary steel manufacturing technique.


What is Secondary Steelmaking?

Secondary steel production is not as standard as its primary counterpart. However, it still rates among the most successful methods of manufacturing steel. What precisely is secondary steel production? Often known as electric arc furnace steelmaking, secondary steel processing lives up to its reputation using an electric arc to melt scrap iron. Once the scrap iron gets dissolved, it is combined with carbon and processed into steel.


Difference Between Primary and Secondary Steelmaking

Modern steel making procedures consist of two categories: primary and secondary steelmaking. Immediate steel processing requires converting liquid iron from an impact heater and steel waste to steel utilising simple oxygen steelmaking or the breakdown of scrap steel or direct reduced iron in an electrical bent heater. In secondary metallurgy, alloy operators get used, disassembled gases get disassembled in steel, and incorporations are eliminated or artificially adjusted to ensure that excellent steel is provided after cutting (casting).


Main TMT bars made from iron tickets consist of iron minerals as raw materials. The re-rolled TMT steel bars get made of re-liquefied steel, in which the secondary steel ingots get constructed from reused steel. Low-cost cold rolled steel bars, fragile and have a low-pressure output, are known as re-rolled TMT steel bars. The critical technique requires lower remaining elements, such as copper-nickel chromium, at low levels. The secondary phase has a significantly higher degree of these elements. Because the critical technique uses simple oxygen furnaces, it has lower nitrogen levels than the electrical heater liquefied in the air. Primary steel would favour secondary steel to cold heading and cold deformation.

Primary Steel Products

This is the final formation process, where hot rollers get used to fine-tuning the casting. This is the point at which the raw outline of the steel turns into permanent ones, such as TMT Bars, structural steel, plate and pipe products and many more.

Secondary Steel Process

The final stage of steel manufacturing is the secondary formation method that brings the steel products their overall form and properties. It can get achieved by the following:

  • Formulation  (cold rolling technique)
  • Machining  (e.g., digging)      
  • Joining  (through welding)  
  • Coating – galvanising with zinc, whether with a cold coating and electro-coating 
    Thermal treatment (usually tempering) 
  • Surface application (carburising).

Secondary Steel Products

  •     Flats
  •     Angeles    
  •     Squares
  •     Rounds 
  •     Plate
  •     TMT Bars
  •     Pipes

Despite the fact that it’s most regularly performed with scrap iron, auxiliary steelmaking can create enormous yields of steel. As per Wikipedia, auxiliary steelmaking can deliver around 100 tons of steel each 40 to 50 minutes. Essential steelmaking, obviously, can likewise deliver huge yields.